What is island landform: Definition, Formation, Types, Check Here

Islands can be formed in different ways. As volcanoes erupt, they build up layers of lava. When the tops of the volcanoes appear above the water, an island is formed. Erosion of peninsulas can also create islands. An island landform island that is completely surrounded by water. It can be any type of land. The island can also be surrounded different types of water such as a sea, ocean, river, and lake. There are a lot of famous islands in the world. An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm.

How are islands formed?

How are islands formed

As volcanoes erupt, they build up layers of lava that may eventually break the water’s surface. When the tops of the volcanoes appear above the water, an island is formed. While the volcano is still beneath the ocean surface, it is called a seamount. Oceanic islands can form from different types of volcanoes. Islands are formed primarily by volcanic activity. Magma bubbles up from the seafloor, is cooled by the ocean, and forms rock. This continues until it rises above sea level as a volcano. Over time the volcano goes dormant, allowing plants to grow and an inhabitable island to form.

Types islands:

Types islands

An island landform island that is completely surrounded by water. It can be any type of land. The island can also be surrounded different types of water such as a sea, ocean, river, and lake.

  1. Oceanic islands:

Oceanic islands

Oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on the continental shelves and are mostly of volcanic origin. When tectonic plates shift at a subduction zone, volcanic eruptions might take place and lead to the formation of the island.  Oceanic islands of volcanic origin are formed when lava spewed out by underwater volcanic activity builds up in layers to reach the surface of the ocean and appear above the water level.

  1. Barrier islands:

Barrier islands

The islands that are narrow which lie parallel to the coastline, and separate the mainland from the ocean, as barrier islands. The formation of barrier islands can take place by various processes, for example, barrier islands might be created by the deposition of sediments like gravel, sand or slit by longshore currents. The islands are separated from the mainland by sounds or lagoons.

  1. Continental islands:

Continental islands

Continental islands represent land masses that were connected to a continent at some point in time but have separated from the continents by the shifting of tectonic plates to form islands surrounded on all sides by water. Movements of the Earth’s crust led to the crust breaking into several pieces and drifting apart. Such tectonic activities gave birth to the different continents of the world and led to the formation of the continental islands. Greenland and Madagascar, both very large islands, were formed in this manner.

  1. Tidal islands are continental islands that appear as islands during the high tide. Here the mainland is not completely cut-off from the island but the connecting land between the two is submerged under the water during high tides. The Mont Saint-Michel island is France is an example of a tidal island.

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