Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. It is a process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that will occur in nature when an organism such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals which reproduce asexually cloning in biotechnology which refers in the processes used to create copies of DNA. Clones can happen naturally like identical twins are just one of many examples of it or they can be made in a lab. Natural clones are also known as identical twins that occur in the humans and other mammals. These twins are produced when a fertilized egg splits creating two or more embryos that carry almost identical DNA.
What is cloning used for?
Cloning a gene makes it possible to obtain many copies of the same DNA molecule. Cloned DNA is used to create a larger number of copies of a gene or other piece of DNA. It can also be used to work Cloning genes can be useful in curing and treating genetic disorders such as cystic, fibrosis and severe combined immunodeficiency. The cloned DNA is copied as a circular molecule in bacteria. The traditional technique for a gene cloning involves the transfer of a DNA fragment of interest from one organism to the self-replicating genetic element, such as a bacterial plasmid.
Importance of genetic cloning:
The importance of cloning has many important reasons including advances in medicines, producing livestock faster, improving the crops and for the use by police. It is not just used to study just proteins involved in the cell cycle molecular cloning has led scientists to discover the entire genetic sequence of many different species, inactive genes in both humans and another organism, and creates transgenic organisms to treat some dangerous disease, they clone the healthy gene and then insert it into the organism to replace it with the diseased gene. Bacteria also are important for the nitrogen fixation. Bacteria along with the desired gene are used to increases the crop.
Steps for gene cloning:
- Insertion of Isolated DNA into a Suitable Vector to Form the Recombinant DNA.
- Isolation of DNA Fragments to be Clone.
- Selection of the Transformed Host Cells and Identification of the Clone Containing the Gene of Interest.
- Multiplication and Expression of the Introduced Gene in the Host.
- Isolation of the Multiplied Gene Copies/Protein Expressed by the Introduced Gen.
- Purification of the isolated gene copy or protein.
- The recombinant DNA into a suitable organism known as the host.
Facts about cloning:
- Cloning may make it possible to save endangered species from becoming extinct.
- The first successfully cloned animal was Dolly, a sheep that was born in 1996, in Edinburgh, Scotland, at the Roslin Institute under the guidance of Ian Wilmut and his colleagues. There were 277 attempts before Dolly was successfully cloned.
- Plants such as strawberry plants have been cloning themselves for billions of years. Strawberry plants clone by shooting out a runner, which then grows its own root and begins to produce strawberries. Onions, potatoes, and even grass clones in a similar manner.
- People have been cloning plants since the beginning of agriculture. This is done by taking a clipping of a plant and growing it into a new plant.
- Tissue culture propagation is done by breaking up specialized roots and growing the root cells in a rich culture. The plants that grow are identical to the originals.
- Some creatures in the wild are able to clone, including some worms, frogs, lizards, and fish, under the right conditions. This type of cloning is referred to as parthenogenesis.
- Identical twins are a type of natural occurring cloning process. The children are not clones of their parents but they are clones of each other.
- Cloned animals have shown to have health issues such as defects in the heart, liver, and brain, as well as increased birth size. They also age faster and have immune system issues. Dolly the sheep only lived to be 6 years old when the normal lifespan of a sheep if 12 years.