What are Volcanoes: Definition, Types, Facts, Check Here

Volcanoes are mountains. Fine particles of rock dust blown from an explosion vent Volcanoes are just a natural way that the Earth and other planets have of cooling off and releasing internal heat and pressure. Volcanoes form when chambers of magma, or hot molten rock, boil to the surface. These magma chambers often remain sealed for hundreds of years between eruptions, until the pressure builds sufficiently to break through a vent, which is a crack or weak spot in the rock above opens down to the pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When the pressure builds up eruptions occur. Gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. Eruptions can cause lateral blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, falling ash, and floods. The volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, rock falls.

How the volcanoes erupt?

How the volcanoes erupt

The friction causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions near the edges of the plates. The main good effect that volcanoes have on the environment is to provide nutrients to the surrounding soil. Volcanic ash often contains minerals that are beneficial to plants, and if it is very fine as it is able to break down quickly and get mixed into the soil. Volcanoes erupt because of density and pressure. The lower density of the magma relative to the surrounding rocks causes it to rise like air bubbles in syrup. It will rise to the surface or to a depth that is determined by the density of the magma and the weight of the rocks above it. The earth’s crust is made up of huge slabs called plates, which fits together like a jigsaw puzzle.

Types of volcanoes:

Types of volcanoes

There are four types of the volcano which includes:

  1. Composite volcanoes: This volcano is composed of many layers of volcanic rocks it is a steep-sided volcano, which is usually made of high-viscosity like lava, ash and rock debris. It is a volcano that forms from explosive eruptions that produce alternating layers of lava and ash
  2. Cinder cones: It is a circular or oval shaped cones made of small fragments of lava from a single vent that has been blown into the air, cooled and fallen around the vent. It is small, steeply sloped volcano that forms from moderately explosive eruptions of pyroclastic material.
  3. Lava volcanoes: when the erupting lava is too thick to flow and makes a steep-sided mound as the lava piles up near the volcanic vent is when the lava domes are formed.
  4. Shield volcano: A wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions. The volcanoes shaped like a bowl or shield in the middle with long gentle slopes made by basaltic lava flows are shield volcanoes. Basalt lava flows from these volcanoes are called flood basalts.

Facts of volcanoes:

Facts of volcanoes

  • Volcanoes are usually located where tectonic plates meet. This is especially true for the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area around the Pacific Ocean where over 75% of the volcanoes on Earth are found.
  • Volcanoes are openings in the Earth’s surface. When they are active they can let ash, gas and hot magma escape in sometimes violent and spectacular eruptions.
  • The word volcano originally comes from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.
  • Volcanoes are openings in the Earth’s surface. When they are active they can let ash, gas and hot magma escape in sometimes violent and spectacular eruptions.
  • The word volcano originally comes from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *