What Are Disabilities: Explanation, Types & Facts

Disability is a physical or mental problem that makes it difficult or impossible for a person to walk, see, hear, speak or learn. This term is used in individual functioning which includes physical impairment sensory impairment, intellectual mental illness and various types of chronic disease.

There are many types of disabilities, such as those that affect a person’s:

  • Vision
  • Movement
  • Thinking
  • Remembering
  • Learning
  • Communicating
  • Hearing
  • Mental health
  • Social relationships

Types of disabilities:

  1. Hearing disabilities:

Hearing disabilities

A person being deaf is not able to hear sounds around and in surroundings.  Deaf is described as an individual who has both a sight of hearing loss. It is hard and difficult for the person to describe the speech and communicate.

  1. Mental disabilities:

Mental health can take place in many forms though mental illness can be treated. It includes mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders and organic brain disorders.

  1. Intellectual disabilities:

Intellectual disabilities

Intellectual disability is the condition that damaged the brain before the birth, during birth or in childhood days, illness during the mother during pregnancy and use of alcohol or drugs by pregnant mothers or childhood diseases.

  1. Learning disabilities:

Learning disabilities

Learning disabilities is a specific and tireless disorder in a person’s central nervous system affecting the learning process. This affects the person’s ability to explain what they see and hear or to interact with the information from different parts of the brain.

  1. Visual disabilities:

Visual disabilities

Visual disability describes a person who is blind or has less visual power only ten percent of normal vision. Only the ten percent of the people with a visual disability is actually totally blind and the other 90 are described as visual impairment.

  1. Physical disabilities:

Physical disabilities

Physical disabilities are termed as the physical disorder such as functional, strength or physiological impairments. It can be different, irregular, chronic, continuous or stable, visible or invisible it can lead to extreme painless or more in physical disorders.

Facts about disabilities:

Facts about disabilities

  • Overall there are 2 crores 68 lakh persons with disability.
  • More than 41% of persons with disabilities in India never get married! This has a direct connection with the cliches associated with disability.
  • Locomotor and multiple disabilities are more commonly found in rural areas of India.
  • Speech and hearing impairment is found to be more prevalent among the urban population of India.
  • Only 36.3% of the disabled population which turns out to be about 98 lakhs are employed.
  • Of these, about 71 lakh are men and 27 lakh are women
  • Literacy rate among women with disabilities is merely 45% whereas the overall women literacy rate in India is 65%.
  • The literacy rate of men with disabilities is 62%.
  • 27% of Indian people with no disability are illiterate. This figure goes up to 57% in case of people with intellectual disability.
  • 44% of the Indian people with no disability are illiterate. This figure goes up to 57% in case of people with intellectual disability.
  • It is estimated that the number of unemployed persons with disabilities will cross 10 million by 2022 if appropriate skills are not imparted through training programs.

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