What are Chromosomes: Definition, Functions, Types, Formula & Facts About

Chromosomes are made up of DNA, proteins, and RNA. The DNA molecule is packed into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Now each chromosome is made up of tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure. The chromosomes of a cell are in the cell nucleus. Which carry genetic information.  A chromosome is one long molecule of double standard DNA.

The functions of chromosomes:

The functions of chromosomes

Chromosomes are the threadlike structure found in the nuclear of both animal and plant cells, they are made up of protein and one molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA. As the genetic material passes from parents to their child the chromosome is responsible for containing the instructions that make the offspring unique while still carrying traits from the parent. In most organisms, one chromosome is inherited from the mother and the other is inherited from the father, to ensure that offspring carries traits from both parents. It’s crucial that certain cells like reproductive cells have the correct number of chromosomes in order to function properly.

Types of chromosomes:

Types of chromosomes

  1. Metacentric Chromosomes:

A metacentric chromosome is a centromere in the center in such a way that the sections are equal in length. The 1 and 3 chromosome is metacentric.

  1. Submetacentric chromosome:

Submetacentric chromosomes have the centromere little offset from the center and the slight asymmetry in the length of two sections. The 4 and 12 human chromosomes are submetacentric.

  1. Acrocentric chromosome:

Acrocentric chromosomes have a centromere which is severely offset from the center and to very long and one very short section. The 13, 15, 21 and 22 of human chromosomes are acrocentric.

  1. Telocentric chromosomes:

Telocentric chromosomes have the centromere at the very end. Humans do not have telocentric chromosome but they are found in other species such as mice.

The formula of chromosome:

46, XX Karyotype of a normal female having 46 chromosomes per cell including two X chromosomes. … 47, XY,+21 Karyotype of a male with trisomy 21 or Familial Down Syndrome having 47 chromosomes per cell, including one X chromosome and one Y chromosome and an additional copy of Chromosome 2.

How do chromosomes work?

How do chromosomes work

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Passed from parents to offspring, DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique.

Facts about chromosomes:

Facts about chromosomes

  • In plant and animal cells, DNA? Is tightly packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes? This is in contrast to bacteria? Where DNA floats freely around the cell.
  • A single length of DNA is wrapped many times around lots of proteins? Called histones, to form structures called nucleosomes.
  • These nucleosomes then coil up tightly to create chromatin loops.
  • The chromatin loops are then wrapped around each other to make a full chromosome.
  • Each chromosome has two short arms (p arms), two longer arms (q arms), and a centromere holding it all together at the center.
  • Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 in total): one set comes from your mother and one set comes from your father.
  • Of these 23 pairs, one pair is sex chromosomes so differ depending on whether you are male or female (XX for female or XY for male).
  • The other 22 pairs are autosomes? Non-sex chromosomes and look the same for both males and females.

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