Tropical rainforests are the area, in which there is no dry season. There is always about 60nm of precipitation. These areas are also referred to as “lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
The Tropics are said to be that region of the earth which is near the equator and between the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere.
This area is also referred as “tropical zone” or the “torrid zone.”
The word “tropics” belongs to Greek word-“troops” which means “turn” because the apparent position of the sun moves between the two tropics within a year. In a nutshell, Tropical this word defines explicitly places near the equator.
Rainforests mean a luxuriant, dense forest rich in biodiversity, found typically in tropical areas with consistently heavy rainfall.
(i) Area of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil.
(ii) The tropical rainforest of South America.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TROPICAL RAINFORESTS AREA:
- To simplify the tropical rainforests can be characterized into two types hot and wet.
- The average temperature there is more than 18degree Celsius throughout the year.
- The average annual rainfall there is never less than 1,680mm and can be expected to increase up to 3,000mm.
- As there is high precipitation in this area, the soil here is loose due to leaching of soluble nutrients in the ground.
- The biodiversity of Tropical rainforest is highly fertile with almost around 40% to 75% of world species.
- Rainforests provide shelter to almost half of the living animal and plant species on the earth.
- World’s largest Pharmacy” is another name given to tropical forests, because over one-quarter of natural medicines have been found within them.
- From the beginning of 20th century, the area of tropical rainforests has been subjected to heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Because of this, the area covered by rainforests around the worlds id rapidly shrinking.
Types of tropical rainforests:
Moist seasonal tropical forest
These tropical forest areas receive high rainforests along with a summer wet and a colder winter dry seasons. They are sometimes called “TROPICAL MIXED FOREST” as some of the trees in this forests shed their leaves during winter dry season.
Example: some part in South America, Central America, parts of the Indian subcontinent and many more.
This type of Tropical rainforests is found in more cooling climate mountain area, at higher elevations. They are also called “ cloud forests.”
Tropical freshwater swamp forests or “flooded forests” are found in Amazon basin and elsewhere.
There are many diverse and widespread efforts to protect and conserve tropical rainforest habitats. At the international level, a policy called “ Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and governments to outset their carbon emissions through financial investment into rainforest conservation. Threats to tropical areas are of deforestation, mining and dwelling (e.g., OK Tedi mine in southwestern Papua New Guinea) and climate change.