Forest degradation is defined as the reduction in capacity of the forest which produces ecosystem services which includes carbon storage and wood products which results in anthropogenic and environmental changes. The bigger cause of degradation is unsustainable logging, agriculture, spreading of species, fire, fuelwood gathering, and livestock grazing. Now forest degradation has become widespread and is the important consideration in the global policy process that deals with biodiversity, climate changes and forest management. Preparation of forest degradation is varied and depends upon the causes, the goods or services of interest, and the temporal scale considered.
Causes of degradation:
- Agricultural activities: It is the major factors which are affecting deforestation. Due to which the overgrowing demand for food products, huge amount of trees are fallen down to grow crops and gazing.
- Logging: Rather than wood-based industries like paper, match-sticks, furniture which also needs a substantial amount of wood supplies. Wood is also been used as fuel both directly and indirectly. That is why the trees are chopped for supplies. Firewood and charcoal are the good examples of wood being used as fuel.
- Urbanization: To order the gain of access of these forests, the construction of roads have been undertaken, there again the trees are chopped to make roads. Overpopulation too directly affects the forest covers. Now with the growth of cities, more land is needed to start housing and settlements.
- Desertification of land: There are some of the other factors which lead to deforestation and also are part natural and part anthropogenic like desertification of land. It occurs due to the land abuse making it a week for the growth of trees.
- Mining: Oil and coal mining needs a considerable amount of forest land. Other than this, roads and highways have to be built to make way for trucks and other transportations. The waste that comes out from mining pollutes the environment and affects it.
- Forest fires: It is another example of forest blaze. Hundreds of trees are lost every year due to the forest fires in various parts of the world. This happens due to the warmness in summer and mildness in winters.
Effects of deforestation:
- Climate imbalance: Deforestation also affects the climate in many ways. Trees release water vapor in the air which leads to lack of trees. Trees also give the require shades that keep the soil moist.
- Increase in global warming: Trees play a very important role in controlling global warming. The tree takes up the greenhouse gases and restores the balance in the atmosphere.
- Soil Erosion: Due to the shade of trees the soil remains moist. With the help of tree cover, the soil gets directly exposed to the sun, making it dry.
- Floods: When it rains the tree absorbs and store a large amount of water with the help of their roots. When they are cut down the flow of water is destroyed and leads to floods in some areas.
Solutions to deforestations:
- Controlling the feeling of trees by employing the series of rules and laws to govern it.
- Cutting of forests should be clearly banned
- The cutting of trees leads to destroying the forest so it should be replaced with planting new trees in order to replace old trees that were cut.