The landline is a very huge variety of mass movements that are seen in the downward and outward of movement of slope-forming materials lick rocks, soils, artificial fills under the gravity influence. The materials may move by falling, sliding, toppling, spreading or flowing. These landslides occur worldwide and cause thousands of casualties and billions of financial losses. Landslides are caused by rain, earthquakes, volcanoes, or other factors that make the slope unstable.
What causes landslide?
Areas with steep slopes, for example, mountainous regions, are particularly susceptible to landslide hazards. Most landslides are caused by multiple factors that act together to destabilize the slope. Several things can trigger landslides, including the slow weathering of rocks as well as soil erosion, earthquakes, and volcanic activity. The primary cause of a landslide is the influence of gravity acting on weakened materials that make up a sloping area of land. While some landslides occur slowly over time e.g., land movement on the order of a few meters per month, the most destructive ones happen suddenly after a triggering event such as heavy rainfall or an earthquake. The term landslide refers to the downward movement of a large mass of rocks, soil, mud and organic debris. Areas with steep slopes, for example, mountainous regions, are particularly susceptible to landslide hazards. Most landslides are caused by multiple factors that act together to destabilize the slope. Landslides are classified according to the type of material that falls and how that material moves downslope. For example, there are rock falls, mudslides, and debris flows. All of these terms represent a type of landslide. Destructive type of landslide is known as a lahar. Lahars are volcanic mudflows or debris flows that are capable of traveling at very fast speeds down the slope of a volcano.
Measures were taken to prevent landslide:
- Maintain as much vegetation as possible on the slope to help retain the soil.
- Do not put yard waste on the slope.
- Do not add additional water from downspouts to slopes from stormwater runoff being directed to a hillside.
- Do not have an irrigation system on a hillside.
- Don’t locate swimming pools near a slope.
- The best way to avoid landslides is not to live or work in an area that has a landslide history.
- Slides are caused by water, gravity and generally a layer of clay that lets loose
Types of landslides:
There are many types of landslides:
- Rockfall: Falling free of separate bodies of bedrock from the mountains or steep slopes.
- Creep: Creep is a slowdown slope movement of earth covers. The creep affected areas utility poles, fence posts and gravestones etc. deformed on the surfaces.
- Rockslide: It is a sudden downslope movement of detached masses of bedrock
- Debris fall: when rock, as well as overlying sediments and vegetation, is free falling. It is known as debris fall.
- Debris flows downslope movement of collapsed, unconsolidated material typically along a stream channel.