The ecosystems of the earth are very diverse. Apart from rainforests, coral reefs, grasslands there is another biome on the planet, i.e., TUNDRA. The region is exciting due to its extreme low temperatures and short growing seasons which do not allow for much plant life.
- Where is Tundra Region? The Tundra is located at the top of the world near the North Pole. This covers a fifth of the earth’s surface as a result of its large biome, and extremely uniform is appearance.
- Etymology-The word tundra originates from Russian word, which means “uplands” or “ treeless mountain track.”
- Types of Tundra-There are three types of tundra:
This occurs in the far northern hemisphere to the north of the Tundra belt. This Tundra area is frozen for most of the time. Arctic tundra contains stark landscapes. The soil here is deep frozen, and it is difficult for tees to grow.
Antarctic tundra region can be seen in Antarctica and on several ant artics and sub- Antarctic islands, including South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the Kerguelen Islands. Most of the ant artic is frozen, but still, some area like Antarctic peninsula have areas of rocky soil the support plant life.
Alpine tundra occurs in the mountains worldwide.
Following are specific characteristics of tundra plants-
(i) There are about 1,700 species of plants that can tolerate and survive in harsh conditions of the Arctic and Alpine environments.
(ii) These plants are usually dwarfed and grouped.
(iii) Some of the plants have stems and small tiny leaves, and many of the flowers have cup-shaped blossoms.
(iv) Examples of common plants that grow in tundra region are hereunder-
These plants have small rootlets due to permafrost. As they grow mainly at the bottoms of lakes and logs. They receive most of their nutrients from there. It has peculiar features of storing extra nutrients absorbed into its leaves for next growing season.
The height of this plant is shallow which in turn is beneficial for it. Due to its low size, it can protect itself from harsh, violent winds in the tundra. Bearberry is often found behind rocks. Its leaves can retain moisture and heat inside it because the leaves have the leathery texture.
It is also called “ camel” od moss. It is so named because it can live long without water. They look like foamy greenish spongy mass and grows only about 1 to 4 inches high. It is a lichen.
This plant has fuzz on the underside of its leaves meant to retain moisture. The stem of this plant consists of hair like structure to bring moisture up from the ground fog and acts like a sponge to keep that moisture.
This plant grows close to the ground to stay out of the strong wind. They also have small hairs to retain heat.