Pollution today has spread like a virus, there is hardly any place on this planet where pollution is not present. By saying I want to emphasize that pollution has reached even to places where human settlement is not there, places like mountains, poles, underwater i.e. in the ocean. Very but drastically spreading pollution today is oceanic pollution. We are covered with almost 70% of oceanic water, hence pollution of an ocean is a serious matter and needs immediate repairing.
Oceanic pollution is also referred as marine pollution. When harmful wastes from land by whichever means comes in contact with ocean and the life within an ocean, it disturbs the natural composition and natural biosphere of the ocean, which affects the flora and fauna in there hence causing pollution called as oceanic pollution.
Sources of and reasons for oceanic pollution:
As there is a huge demand for oil, there is large-scale trading of oil. Most of the transportation is carried out by sea-route. If in case there is any mishap then the oil leaks out into the open sea. THIS oil being lighter than water usually floats on the surface of the water. Only less amount of oil gets to mix with water. This spreading of oil stops the flow of oxygen hence reduces the amount of oxygen in the water. Due to this great loss of marine life is caused. Cleaning this oil is again very difficult task.
Flushing off fertilizers from farm and lawns into the ocean is a huge problem. This causes eutrophication, which disturbs the marine life.
Most of the garbage consists of plastic, tins, cans, etc. which are non- biodegradable and can stay in the environment for years together. This garbage, when dumped in the ocean, causes huge pollution.
Chemicals coming out of industries and agricultural waste flushes out in an ocean. This flushing causes a direct effect on marine life, firstly they are hazardous in nature and secondly the raise the temperature inside the ocean, which is called thermal pollution, hence making the atmosphere unfavorable for marine’s flora and fauna.
- Acidification: when we emit carbon-do-oxide either by breathing out or by burning fuels, these CO2 not only pollutes air on land but this carbon- dioxide is also consumed by the ocean. The ph level of water changes. The water becomes more acidic in nature. This process of acidification is increasing each day.
- Oceanic Noise:life in ocean uses sound as a medium to navigate and search their food. Due to industrialization and globalization, there are many ships and carriages sailing each time. Because of the noise of these huge ships, the sound od marine animals get disturbs. which leads to oceanic noise pollution.
Effect of oceanic pollution:
Disturbance to coral reefs:
Due to oil spills the cycle of marine life gets disturbs. they do not get oxygen and sunlight due to screening created by layers of oils.
Effects on the food chain:
Maine life is a part of food chain. Due to pollution od ocean and death of marine life, this natural food chain gets disturbed.
Death of marine life:
because of oil spills oxygen level drops and also less sunlight causes skin problem and eye problem to fauna, acidification cause raises in ph level of water, the release of harmful chemicals affects marine, these and many more reason collectively are responsible for the death of marine life.
Effect on a human:
Due disturbance in the food chain by oceanic pollution the human life also gets affected. Fishes are used as a food, for medicine and many more other reasons, everything will be lost due to oceanic pollution.