Genetic Engineering: Introduction, Meaning, Types, Conclusion

 

INTRODUCTION:

Genetic engineering is direct manipulation or duplication of genes on any organism using biotechnology. An organism that is generated through this type modified (GM) and the product that is generated is a genetically modified organism (GMO)

Meaning:

What is Genetic Engineering?

Genetic Engineering is the process of altering the DNA in an organism’s genome. This process is also called genetic engineering.

How does it work?

Genetic Engineering this process works by changing one base pair i.e (A-T OR C-g), deleting a whole region of DNA or introducing an additional copy of a gene. IT also works by extracting DNA from another’s organism’s genome and contributing it with the DNA of that individual.
It is used by scientists to enhance or modify the characteristics of an individual organism. The process of genetic engineering can be applied to any organism right from a virus to sheep.
For example- Genetic engineering can be used to grow a plant that can grow in any type of climatic condition and along with high nutritional value.

  1. Uses of Genetic engineering
  2. The bacterium was the first genetically modified organism to be created in 1973.
  3. In the year 1994, first genetically modified food was made available.
  4. There is numerous application of genetic engineering including scientific researches, agriculture, and technology.
  5. Genetic engineering is used in plants to improve the resilience, nutritional value and growth rate of crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, and rice.
  6. In animals, it is mainly used to develop sheep that produce a therapeutic protein in their milk that can be used to treat cystic fibrosis or worms that grow in the dark to allow scientists to learn more about diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

Types of Genetic Engineering :

There are three main categories of genetic engineering

ANALYTICAL GENETIC ENGINEERING:

In this type, virtual genetic models are created using computer software. This is a research branch of genetic engineering. here, various computer programs are used to theoretically study the implications of various genetic engineering activities.

APPLIED GENETIC ENGINEERING:

It is that field of genetic engineering which related to practical applications of genetic engineering. The tools to manipulate the genes of living organisms for making genetic copies of them or to introduce certain different characteristics in them that are not usual for the subjects. The first instance is generally referred to as cloning and the second case is referred to the premises of transgenesis.

CHEMICAL GENETIC ENGINEERING :

CHEMICAL GENETIC ENGINEERING

Chemical genetic engineering is that type of genetic engineering which is the root of applied genetic engineering. It deals with separating, classifying and graphing genes to prepare them for applied genetic engineering activities and experiments.

CONCLUSION:

The list of above types is not exhaustive but illustrative. Other than that, there are two other emerging fields in genetic engineering such as somatic cell engineering and germ-line engineering. Genetic engineering is still a developing field.

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