The relationship between human and environment is governed by the philosophy of moral ethics. What are the ethical issues and what are the correlated obligation on humans with the environment has been a matter of discussion for decades.
Ethics can be defined as, “ moral principles that govern a person’s behavior or the conducting of human activity.”
The environment can be defined as, “the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates together under one sun.”
Environmental ethics can be defined as,” it is a philosophy which studies the relationship between human and its surrounding natural environment. “
DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS:
Environmental ethics gained focus only after the 1970s. The great works that took our attention towards the relation between human and environment are ,(i) Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1963), which consisted of detailed information about how pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin and dieldrin concentrated through the food web,(ii) Essay by Lynn white , which says that environment is for the use of humans, based on Christine Bible and so on, (iii) John Muir personified nature as an inviting place away from the loudness of urban centers.
Environmental ethics and humans:
Many scientist support environmental ethics as a means to reduce environmental issues.
Environmental ethics has gained fame today. Environmental ethics help men to understand its relationship with nature and makes him understand better about his obligations towards the environment. Factors that involved in environmental ethics are air pollution, depletion of natural resources, loss of biodiversity, loss of ecosystems, and global climate change.
hen environmental ethics is compared with human values, both the factors are different. Environmental ethics related to ethics towards nature and its conservation. Human values, on the contrary, are about values that every individual person needs to obey in his conduct. Human values depend on human behavior and conduct, environmental ethics are related to conduct of human towards environmental issues.
In nutshells, with this theory of environmental ethics philosophers wants to emphasize that it is the collective duty of every person earth to conserve its environment and protect it for future generation. They intend to alert human that although nature is for the use oh human but is the ethical responsibility of human to not exploit this natural gift. Be polite to the environment.
Radical ecology :
Radical ecology deals with two types of thinking, firstly ethical extension is not possible in radical thinking due to the traditional way of thinking, secondly, no radical thoughts is only related to the ecological ethics. But instead, radical ecologies also demands fundamental changes in society.
Deep ecology :
Deep ecology does not try to formulate principle rating to environment conducts but instead, it is trying to build an entirely new worldwide view about nature and its perspectives. Arne Naess was the Norwegian philosopher who was first to outline this shallow-deep difference in environmentalism. He emphasized the development of new eco-philosophy or “ecosophy” in order to replace the destructive philosophy of modern society about the environment.
Social ecology wants to explain that in order to resolve the environmental crisis, it is necessary to radically analyze and improve the ideology of environmental ethics. Its emphasis on dominations and not on self-realization like deep ecology.
Even this points out the link between social domination and domination on the environment. Ecofeminist writers like Plumwood and Warren talk about dualism in domination, of both women and nature. On the other hand, some other philosophers believe that environmental ethics does not an emphasis on dual domination but instead it tries to create a link between women and nature about how they are dominated.